Archive for October, 2011
Psychiatry and mental health
Psychiatry is the realm in which medical science and psychology join to provide help for persons whose mind (as one says) is disturbed and whose behavior does not conform to accept social patterns. Psychopathology and clinical psychology are integral sub-fields of this branch of medical psychology which, of necessity, also includes neurology, mental deficiency or retardation, forensic psychology, certain aspects of abnormal psychology, social psychology and Psychotherapy.Mental Illness has been recognized as such since the days of Aristotle and Hippocrates, and its long modern history has been able described by some scientists.
Mental Health, state characterized by psychological well-being and self-acceptance. The term mental health usually implies the capacity to love and relate to others, the ability to work productively, and the willingness to behave in a way that brings personal satisfaction without encroaching upon the rights of others. In a clinical sense, mental health is the absence of Mental Illness.
The Mental Health Movement
Concern for the Mentally Ill has waxed and waned through the centuries, but the development of modern-day approaches to the subject dates from the mid-18th century, when reformers such as the French physician Philippe Pinel and the American physician Benjamin Rush introduced humane “moral treatment” to replace the often cruel treatment that then prevailed. Despite these reforms, most of the Mentally Ill continued to live in jails and poorhouses—a situation that continued until 1841, when the American reformer Dorothea Dix campaigned to place the mentally ill in hospitals for special treatment.
The modern mental health movement can be traced to the publication in 1908 of A Mind That Found Itself, an account of the experience of its author, Clifford Whittingham Beers, as a mental patient. The book aroused a storm of public concern for the mentally ill. In 1909 Beers founded the National Committee for Mental Hygiene.
Public awareness of the need for greater governmental attention to Mental Health Services led to passage of the National Mental Health Act in 1946. This legislation authorized the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health to be operated as a part of the U.S. Public Health Service. In 1950 the National Committee for Mental Hygiene was reorganized as the National Association for Mental Health, better known as the Mental Health Association.
In 1955 Congress established a Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health to survey the mental health needs of the nation and to recommend new approaches. Based on the commission’s recommendations, legislation was passed in 1963 authorizing funds for construction of facilities for community-based treatment centers. A similar group, the President’s Commission on Mental Health, reported its findings in 1978, citing estimates of the cost of mental illness in the U.S. alone as being about $17 billion a year.
Scope of the Problem
According to a common estimate, at any one time 10 percent of the American population has Mental Health Problems sufficiently serious to warrant care; recent evidence suggests that this figure may be closer to 15 percent. Not all the people who need help receive it, however; in 1975 only 3 percent of the American population received mental health service. One major reason for this is that people still fear the stigma attached to mental illness and hence often fail to report it or to seek help.
Analysis of the figures on mental illness shows that Schizophrenia afflicts an estimated 2 million Americans, another 2 million suffer from profound Depressive Disorders, and 1 million have organic psychoses or other permanently disabling Mental Conditions. As much as 25 percent of the population is estimated to suffer from mild or moderate Depression, Anxiety, and other types of emotional problems. Some 10 million Americans have problems related to alcohol abuse, and millions more are thought to abuse drugs. Some 5 to 15 percent of children between the ages of 3 and 15 are the victims of persistent Mental Health Problems, and at least 2 million are thought to have severe learning disabilities that can seriously impair their mental health.
In addition, according to the President’s Commission, the list of mental health problems should be extended beyond identifiable psychiatric conditions to include the damage to mental health associated with unrelenting poverty, unemployment, and discrimination on the basis of race, sex, class, age, and mental or physical handicaps.
Public health authorities customarily distinguish among three forms of prevention. Primary prevention refers to attempts to prevent the occurrence of Mental Disorder, as well as to promote positive mental health. Secondary prevention is the early detection and treatment of a disorder, and tertiary prevention refers to rehabilitative efforts that are directed at preventing complications.
Two avenues of approach to the prevention of mental illness in adults were suggested by the President’s Commission. One was to reduce the stressful effects of such crises as unemployment, retirement, bereavement, and marital disruption; the second was to create environments in which people can achieve their full potential. The commission placed its heaviest emphasis, however, on helping children. It recommended the following steps:
1) good care during pregnancy and childbirth, so that early treatment can be instituted as needed;
2) early detection and correction of problems of physical, emotional, and intellectual development;
3) developmental day-care programs focusing on emotional and intellectual development;
4) support services for families, directed at preventing unnecessary and inappropriate foster care or other out-of-home placements for children.
Care of the mentally ill has changed dramatically in recent decades. Drugs introduced in the mid-1950s, along with other improved treatment methods, enabled many patients who would once have spent years in mental institutions to be treated as outpatients in community facilities instead. (A series of judicial decisions and legislative acts has promoted community care by requiring that patients be treated in the least restrictive setting available.) Between 1955 and 1980 the number of people in state mental hospitals declined from more than 550,000 to fewer than 125,000. This trend was due partly to improved community care and partly to the cost of operating hospitals; in an effort to save public money, some large state mental hospitals have been closed, forcing alternatives to be found for patients. This is generally considered a progressive trend because when patients spend extended periods in hospitals they tend to become overly dependent and lose interest in taking care of themselves. In addition, because the hospitals are often located long distances from the patients’ homes, families and friends can visit only infrequently, and the patients’ roles at home and at work are likely to be taken over by others.
The psychiatric wards of community general hospitals have assumed some of the responsibility for caring for the mentally ill during the acute phases of illness. Some of these hospitals function as the inpatient service for community mental health centers. Typically, patients remain for a few days or weeks until their symptoms have subsided, and they usually are given some form of psychotropic drug to help relieve their symptoms. Following the lead of Great Britain, American mental hospitals now also give some patients complete freedom of buildings and grounds and, in some instances, freedom to visit nearby communities. This move is based on the conclusion that disturbed behavior is often the result of restraint rather than of illness.
Treatment of patients with less severe mental Disorders has also changed markedly in recent decades. Previously, patients with mild Depression, Anxiety disorders, and other neurotic conditions were treated individually with Psychotherapy. Although this form of treatment is still widely used, alternative approaches are now available. In some instances, a group of patients meets to work through problems with the assistance of a therapist; in other cases, families are treated as a unit. Another form of treatment that has proven especially effective in alleviating phobic disorders is behavior therapy, which focuses on changing overt behavior rather than the underlying causes of a disorder. As in the serious Mental Illnesses, the treatment of milder forms of Anxiety And Depression has been furthered by the introduction of new drugs that help alleviate symptoms.
The release of large numbers of patients from state mental hospitals, however, has caused significant problems both for the patients and for the communities that become their new homes. Adequate community services often are unavailable to former mental patients, a large percentage of whom live in nursing homes and other facilities that are not equipped to meet their needs. Most of these patients have been diagnosed as having Schizophrenia, and only 15 to 40 percent of schizophrenics who live in the community achieve an average level of adjustment. Those who do receive care typically visit a clinic at periodic intervals for brief counseling and drug monitoring.
In addition to such outpatient clinics, rehabilitation services include sheltered workshops, day-treatment programs, and social clubs. Sheltered workshops provide vocational guidance and an opportunity to brush up on an old skill or learn a new one. In day-treatment programs, patients return home at night and on weekends; during weekdays, the programs offer a range of rehabilitative services, such as vocational training, group activities, and help in the practical problems of living. Ex-patient social clubs provide social contacts, group activities, and an opportunity for patients to develop self-confidence in normal situations.
Another important rehabilitative facility is the halfway house for patients whose families are not willing or able to accept them after discharge. It serves as a temporary residence for ex-patients who are ready to form outside community ties. A variant is the use of subsidized apartments for recently discharged psychiatric patients.
Many different sciences contribute to knowledge About Mental Health and illness. In recent decades these sciences have begun to clarify basic biological, psychological, and social processes, and they have refined the application of such knowledge to mental health problems.
Some of the most promising leads have come from biological research. For example, brain scientists who study neurotransmitters—chemicals that carry messages from one nerve cell to another—are contributing to knowledge of normal and abnormal brain functioning, and they may eventually discover better treatment methods for mental illness. Other researchers are trying to discover how the brain develops—they have learned, for example, that even in adults some nerve cells partially regenerate after being damaged—and such research adds to the understanding of Mental Retardation, untreatable forms of brain damage, and other conditions.
Psychological research relevant to mental health includes the study of perception, information processing, thinking, language, motivation, emotion, abilities, attitudes, personality, and social behavior. For example, researchers are studying stress and how to cope with it. One application of this type of research may help to prevent Mental Disorders; in the future, psychologists may be better able to match people (and their coping skills) to work settings and job duties.
Research in the social sciences focuses on problems of individuals in contexts such as the family, neighborhood, and work setting, as well as the culture at large. One example of such work is epidemiological research, which is the study of the occurrence of disease patterns, including mental illness, in a society.
You might also like:
About the Author
Addiction Symptoms (Mental Health Guru)
FOOD CRAVINGS AND THE DIFFERENT EATING Disorders
Food is significant in our lives. Though it may not be the chief requirement for sustaining life, food is definitely a highly vital requirement for maintaining life. We depend on the kind of food we eat to have energy for the broad variety of the activities that we do everyday.
Though all of us eat food, the goal of eating food differs a lot amongst us. Majority eat food to fill their hungry tummies Such people eat only to live, but there are few people who live to eat. They eat even though they do not sense any hunger and even also if they do not need some other of the nourishment. They just eat because they delight to eat and they enjoy the taste of their best-loved food. Only few of the people eat foods which are according to the body’s needs. Food is just required by the body with a limitation and proportionate amounts. The diet should be nutritive as well as should be in balanced order to yield the beneficial effects to the body.
When can we say that your food craving is already a disorder? Well, any kind of practice which is already uncontrollable or limitless is dangerous and can be problematic. When food is misused as a tool of managing with problems apart from hunger, then it graduallyturn an Eating Disorder. People obtaining eating Disorders crave certain foods such as chocolates, cakes, ice creams or any of their favorite food just to ease when they have some affectional problems.
Eating Disorders cannot be located to a single cause.There are variety of factors such as psychological causes, stress, issues with self-esteem, inability to cope with pressure, worry, emotional shock, chronic illness, sexual or emotional abuse etc; all of these can lead to Eating Disorder‘s development.
The disorder can be usually telescopic between 12 nd 25 years old which is more common in women.There is no particular predilection for any race, culture or ethnicity. There are many Eating Disorders but the Anorexia nervosa and the Bulimia are the most common which occur to them.
Anorexia nervosa, a type of an eating disorder in which the person who is affected develops phobia of eating too much food.They feel that they are grossly overweight as well as they already eat too much food which aggravate their weight matters.Because of this phobia, they cannot eat right meals and may even induced force vomiting just to have an empty stomach.When the abstinence of eating adequate food continues, it will be dangerous for the body making to lose weight, to obtainn anemia, hormonal imbalance, loss of bone mass and osteoporosis, etc.
Another kind of eating disorder is the Bulimia Nervosa wherein the person has a tendency to indulge in repeated episodes of overindulge eating.Binges usually coincide with the mood swings, emotional upheavals, mental upsets etc.The patient cannot deal the desire to binge and can eat huge quantities of food during the binge episodes.Finally, when the episode finished, the patient may acquire the feeling of guiltness and try to induce vomiting. Because of the vomiting and binging it can result to skin and mouth dryness, bad breath, great variations in the body weight, constipation, and lack of desire for sex, hormonal imbalance and the development of cardiovascular and some other disorders of internal organs.
Food wanting and Eating disorders are a major health issue and need professional help to overcome them.
Daniel Miller is a nutritionist as well as a consultant for the earthy health who lives in UK.He’s very healthy even though he is already 60 year of age and lives by the sea with his wife and a huge dog.
About the Author
Daniel Miller lives in the UK and is a nutritionist and a consultant in natural health. He is a very healthy 60 year old and lives by the sea with his wife and very big dog.<br /><br />www.cressnaturalhealth.com/apx/
Eating Disorders: Food Addiction, Bulimia, Anorexia – and THinspirations thinspo
Natural Ways to Treat Panic Attacks
Anxiety disorder affects many people. There are varying degrees and intensities for people who suffer from a form of Anxiety disorder. More severe cases can cause the sufferer to be nearly completely disabled. Panic Attacks are one of the most significant symptoms of an Anxiety Disorder.
Anxiety Disorder is a double-header problem. What this means is that anxiety disorder is both physical and psychological. The factors that are directly responsible for the disorder cause issues that affect daily life. Most anxiety Disorders are caused by higher levels of fear about something. Traumatic Experiences lead to phobias. You actually believe that if you face what you are afraid of, your life is in danger. It is an overwhelming fear response. Your sudden fears then begin to escalate into panic attacks.
These attacks can be quite disturbing and add even more fear, which only makes things worse. You may have difficulty breathing or hyperventilate. You may also break out in a clammy sweat and feel suddenly flushed. Many people have also noticed changes in their vision and hearing. In fact, it is rather common for more severe attacks to actually cause fainting and black outs.
There are a few kinds of medications that are supposed to treat anxiety disorder. One group is for reducing your overall anxiety. The other group is designed to be taken during panic attacks to help make the attack less severe. In both cases, these medications do not always work. They also have some rather horrible potential side effects; like suicidal thoughts.
Like many other Disorders, there are natural ways to treat the attacks from anxiety disorder. There are two focus points. First, you work on learning how to reduce your ongoing anxiety exposure. Then, you can learn how to get rid of the panic attacks.
Reducing your ongoing anxiety is more about taking better care of yourself. Your main point is to reduce your excessive stress. Too much stress is a big no-no. Stress is fuel for the fire; it feeds your anxiety. When your anxiety levels reach the boiling point, an attack is not far behind. The best natural ways to accomplish this goal include meditation and aromatherapy. Meditation and aromatherapy can be combined to help you learn how to relax both your body and your mind. When you learn how to keep your anxiety levels down, the frequency of your panic attacks will decrease.
It is almost impossible to stop all attacks; you are still going to have a few slips every once in a while. For these instances, you have to learn how to take control and reduce the severity of what you experience. Meditation is usually most effective. When you experience panic attacks, the symptoms you experience will continue to increase in severity, come to a peak, and then slowly subside. The relaxation and focus aversion that you learn in meditation can actually help.
About the Author
Hello my name is christian, I was the webmaster for website www.lccfashion.com my job is to make the website a first page ranking google. Thank you for reading my article
hope be useful for you
warm regards christian
Me talking about my Social Anxiety Disorder