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Mental Health Issues

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mental health issues

How Yoga and Meditation Reduces Depression and Other Mental Health Issues

Yoga is an ancient Indian practice that disciplines the mind and body through a series of poses known as asanas. Each asana is held for a period of time with the aim of strengthening the mind as well as the body, due to the concentration required to hold the pose.

Yoga is also about connecting with yourself by gaining an insight into your inner self. When Depression strikes, it is said that the person has lost the connection to themselves. Devotees of yoga claim that it has amazing inner healing powers and because of this, yogis (those who practice yoga) are able to deal with depression and other Mental Health Problems better than those who do not practice the discipline.

Studies have found that yoga is helpful in cases of depression, Anxiety, stress, Bipolar conditions and other Mental Health Problems. In the UK, yoga is being offered as a form of alternative therapy on the NHS. In New York, yoga is offered as a treatment by psychiatrists to their patients.

Because of the side effects of many mental health drugs, yoga is increasingly being seen as a popular alternative to harsh drugs. For example, yoga is deemed an effective treatment for those suffering from Schizophrenia. Yoga works to calm the body and hence the mind due to the steady and controlled breathing that is required in order to complete the postures.

Fans of yoga have found that they are able to transfer this skill to other areas of their life, particularly when they are feeling anxious because they are able to slow down their breathing and also their heart rate.

Meditation is one of the practices of yoga, and involves using controlled breathing together with inner reflection and focusing on an object or a particular set of thoughts. Meditation that is geared towards helping mental health problems involves dealing with negative thoughts and feelings which can affect a person’s confidence and self-esteem.

Meditation is used by monks as part of their daily ritual to instill calmness and control within the body. They also use meditation as a means to reach within themselves and attain inner peace and harmony, so that they are essentially at one with themselves. This notion of being completely at one with yourself is seen as one of the keys to being truly happy from within.

Meditation is an excellent way to help calm and focus the mind as well as deal with negativity and replace them with positive thoughts and a happier mindset. Research has found meditation to be highly effective in Treating Depression and preventing severe bouts of depression from returning.

One of the many benefits of meditation is that those people who meditate regularly have an exceptional ability to handle stressful situations with a calm and clear mind. Anyone can experience the life enhancing qualities that meditation can bring, simply by playing meditation CDs. These are widely available online and can be used to help a number of conditions from weight loss to depression and treating Anxiety and stress.

Yoga and meditation go hand in hand, and aside from their numerous health benefits, they are a viable alternative to drugs for those people who suffer from depression and other mental health problems.

About the Author

learn everything about brain development and how to keep your mind as sharp as a razor for years to come! See the following blog for regular updates: http://perfectbrain.wordpress.com

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Rare Genetic Disorders

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rare genetic disorders

AN OVERVIEW ON PROGERIA: A RARE DISEASE OF CHILD

AN OVERVIEW ON PROGERIA: A RARE DISEASE OF CHILD

Kamal Singh Rathore, Sunita P., Khushboo Sharma, R.K.Nema

 

Progeria is a rare disease, fatal genetic condition that produces rapid aging, beginning in childhood also known as “Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome” or “HGPS” and “Hutchinson–Gilford syndrome” wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age. Progeria was first described in an academic journal by Dr. Jonathan Hutchinson in 1886, and Dr. Hastings Gilford in 1897 – both in England.

 Its name is derived from the Greek and means “prematurely old.” Approximately 1 in 4000000 people are diagnosed with this condition. Those born with progeria typically live about 13-20 years, It is a genetic condition that occurs as a new mutation and is not usually inherited, although there is a uniquely inheritable form. This is in contrast to another rare but similar premature aging syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita (DKC), which is inheritable and will often be expressed multiple times in a family line.

Although they are born looking healthy, children with Progeria begin to display many characteristics of accelerated aging at around 18-24 months of age. Progeria signs include growth failure, loss of body fat and hair, aged-looking skin, stiffness of joints, hip dislocation, generalized atherosclerosis, cardiovascular (heart) disease and stroke. The children have a remarkably similar appearance, despite differing ethnic background. Children with Progeria die of atherosclerosis (heart disease) at an average age of thirteen years (with a range of about 8 – 21 years). According to Hayley’s Page “At present there are 53 known cases of Progeria around the world and only 2 in the UK”. There is a reported incidence of Progeria of approximately 1 in every 4 to 8 million newborns. Both boys and girls run an equal risk of having Progeria.

Symptoms

Progeria is a progressive genetic Disorder That Causes children to age rapidly, beginning in their first two years of life. The condition is rare; since 1886, only about 130 cases of progeria have been documented in the scientific literature. Usually within the first year of life, growth of a child with progeria slows markedly so that height and weight fall below average for his or her age, and weight falls low for height. Motor development and mental development remain normal.

Signs And Symptoms of this progressive disorder include:

  • Limited growth or Growth failure during the first year of life
  • Narrow, shrunken or wrinkled face
  • failure to thrive
  • Baldness (alopecia)
  • Insulin-resistant diabetes (diabetes that does not respond readily to insulin injections)
  • Skin changes similar to that seen in scleroderma (the connective tissue becomes tough and hardened)
  • Loss of eyebrows and eyelashes
  • a distinctive appearance (small face and jaw, pinched nose)
  • Short stature and small, fragile bodies, like those of elderly people
  • Large head for size of face (macrocephaly)
  • Open soft spot (fontanelle)
  • Small jaw (micrognathia)
  • Dry, scaly, thin skin
  • Limited range of motion
  • Teeth – delayed or absent formation
  • Later, the condition causes wrinkled skin, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular problems.
  • Slowed growth, with below-average height and weight
  • A narrowed face and beaked nose, which makes the child look old
  • Head too large for face
  • Prominent scalp veins
  • Prominent eyes
  • Small lower jaw (micrognathia)
  • High-pitched voice
  • Delayed and abnormal tooth formation
  • Loss of body fat and muscle
  • Stiff joints
  • Hip dislocation

Causes

Progeria usually occurs without cause – it is not seen in siblings of affected children. In extremely rare cases more than one child in the same family may have the condition.

 It is only very rarely seen in more than one child in a family. Progeria is a childhood disorder caused by a point mutation in position 1824 of the LMNA gene (Lamin A), replacing cytosine with thymine, creating an unusable form of the protein Lamin A. Lamin A is part of the building blocks of the nuclear envelope. 90% of children with progeria have a mutation on the gene that encodes the protein lamin A. a protein that holds the nucleus of the cell together. It is believed that the defective Lamin A protein makes the nucleus unstable. This instability seems to lead to the process of premature aging among Progeria patients.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is suspected according to signs And Symptoms, such as skin changes, abnormal growth, and loss of hair. It can be confirmed through a genetic test. The health care professional will possibly suspect Progeria if the signs and symptoms are there – aging skin, loss of hair, stiffness of joints, etc. This can then be confirmed through a genetic test. The Progeria Research Foundation has created a Diagnostic Testing Program.

No diagnostic test confirms progeria. Doctors typically make a diagnosis based on signs and symptoms, such as failure to grow and hair loss, which typically aren’t fully evident until your child is nearly 2. However, with the discovery of the genetic mutation that causes progeria, it’s possible to use genetic testing for LMNA mutations at the first suspicion of progeria. The sooner you know your child has progeria, the sooner your doctor can recommend treatments that may help ease the signs and Symptoms Of The Disorder.

A blood test may reveal that your child has a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the so-called good cholesterol that helps keep arteries open. This laboratory finding isn’t diagnostic by itself, but may lend support to a diagnosis of progeria.

 Treatment

No treatments have been proven effective.

  • Most treatment focuses on reducing complications (such as cardiovascular disease) with heart bypass surgery or low-dose aspirin. A daily dose may help prevent heart attacks and stroke.
  • Growth hormone treatment has been attempted.
  • Drugs known as farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs), which were developed for treating cancer, have shown promise in laboratory studies in correcting the cell defects that cause progeria. FTIs are currently being studied in human clinical trials for treatment of progeria. it has been proposed, but their use has been mostly limited to animal models. A Phase II clinical trial using the FTI Lonafarnib began in May 2007.
  • Physical and occupational therapy. These may help with joint stiffness and hip problems, and may allow your child to remain active.
  • High-calorie dietary supplements. Including extra calories in your child’s daily diet may help prevent weight loss and ensure adequate nutrition.
  • Feeding tube. Infants who feed poorly may benefit from a feeding tube and a syringe. You can use the syringe to push pumped breast milk or formula through the tube to make it easier for your child to feed.
  • Extraction of primary teeth. Your child’s permanent teeth may start coming in before his or her baby teeth fall out. Extraction may help prevent problems associated with the delayed loss of baby teeth, including overcrowding and developing a second row of teeth when permanent teeth come in.

Prognosis

There is no known cure. Few people with progeria exceed 13 years of age. At least 90% of patients die from complications of atherosclerosis, such as heart attack or stroke.

Mental development is not affected. The development of symptoms is comparable to aging at a rate six to eight times faster than normal, although certain age-related conditions do not occur. Specifically, patients show no neurodegeneration or cancer predisposition. They do not develop physically mediated “wear and tear” conditions commonly associated with aging, like cataracts (caused by UV exposure) and osteoarthritis (caused by mechanical wear).

Epidemiology

Classical Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome is almost never passed on from parent to child. It is usually caused by a new (sporadic) mutation during the early division of the cells in the child. It is usually genetically dominant; therefore, parents who are healthy will normally not pass it on to their children. Affected children rarely live long enough to have children themselves.

Research indicates that a chemical (hyaluronic acid) may be found in greatly elevated levels in the urine of Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome patients. The same abnormality has been found in Werner Syndrome, which is sometimes called ‘progeria of the adult’.

Lamin A

Nuclear lamin A is a protein scaffold on the inner edge of the nucleus that helps organize nuclear processes such as RNA and DNA synthesis.

Prelamin A contains a CAAX box at the C-terminus of the protein (where C is a cysteine and A is any aliphatic amino acids). This ensures that the cysteine is farnesylated and allows prelamin A to bind membranes, specifically the nuclear membrane. After prelamin A has been localized to the cell nuclear membrane, the C-terminal amino acids, including the farnesylated cysteine, are cleaved off by a specific protease. The resulting protein is now lamin A, is no longer membrane-bound, and carries out functions inside the nucleus.

In 2003, NHGRI researchers, together with colleagues at the Progeria Research Foundation, the New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, and the University of Michigan, discovered that Hutchinson-Gilford progeria is caused by a tiny, point mutation in a single gene, known as lamin A (LMNA). Parents and siblings of children with progeria are virtually never affected by the disease. In accordance with this clinical observation, the genetic mutation appears in nearly all instances to occur in the sperm prior to conception. It is remarkable that nearly all cases are found to arise from the substitution of just one base pair among the approximately 25,000 DNA base pairs that make up the LMNA gene. The LMNA gene codes for two proteins, lamin A and lamin C, that are known to play a key role in stabilizing the inner membrane of the cell’s nucleus. In laboratory tests involving cells taken from progeria patients, researchers have found that the mutation responsible for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria causes the LMNA gene to produce an abnormal form of the lamin A protein. That abnormal protein appears to destabilize the cell’s nuclear membrane in a way that may be particularly harmful to tissues routinely subjected to intense physical force, such as the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Interestingly, different mutations in the same LMNA gene have been shown to be responsible for at least a half-dozen other Genetic Disorders, including two rare forms of muscular dystrophy. In addition to its implications for diagnosis and possible treatment of progeria, the discovery of the underlying genetics of this model of premature aging may help to shed new light on humans’ normal aging process.

Possible Complications

Heart attack (myocardial infarction)

Stroke

How we can help children with Progeria?

  • Make a financial contribution. Donations are needed to continue the vital work. No donation is too little or too big – every penny counts in our fight for a cure!
  • Donate your time. Volunteers are also important to  success. Hold a special event like a bake sale or letter writing campaign; translate documents for the families; help with a mailing – we’ll find something for you to do that fits your schedule, location and talents!
  • Donate in-kind services or items. Do you own a printing or office supply business? Do you have a background in non-profit development? These are just some of the many types of talents and connections. The more tasks we can get accomplished on a pro bono basis, the more we can spend on research!
  • Spread the word and tap into your connections. Do you know anyone who can do any of the above.

Care, Coping and support

  • Learning your child has progeria can be emotionally devastating. Suddenly you know that your child is facing numerous, difficult challenges and a shortened life span. For you and your family, coping with the disorder involves a major commitment of physical, emotional and financial effort.
  • In dealing with a disorder such as progeria, support groups can be a valuable part of a wider network of social support that includes health care professionals, family and friends. In a support group, you’ll be with people who are facing challenges similar to the one that you are. Talking to group members can help you cope with your own feelings about your child’s condition. If a group isn’t for you, talking to a therapist or clergy member may be beneficial.
  • Ask your doctor about self-help groups or therapists in your community. Your local health department, public library, telephone book and the Internet also may be good sources for finding a support group in your area.

Helping the child to cope

  • If your child has progeria, he or she is also likely to experience fear and grief as awareness grows that progeria shortens life span. Your child eventually will need your help coping with the concept of death, and may have a number of difficult but important questions about God and religion. Your child also may ask questions about what will happen in your family after he or she dies.
  • It’s critical that you are able to talk openly and honestly with your child, and offer reassurance that’s compatible with your belief system. Ask your doctor, therapist or clergy member to help you prepare for such conversations with your child. Friends who you meet through support groups also may be able to offer valuable guidance.

Conclusion and General Discussion

Progeria, or Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, is a rare, fatal, genetic condition of childhood with striking features resembling premature aging. Children with progeria usually have a normal appearance in early infancy. At approximately nine to 24 months of age, affected children begin to experience profound growth delays, resulting in short stature and low weight. They also develop a distinctive facial appearance characterized by a disproportionately small face in comparison to the head; an underdeveloped jaw (micrognathia); malformation and crowding of the teeth; abnormally prominent eyes; a small, nose; prominent eyes and a subtle blueness around the mouth. In addition, by the second year of life, the scalp hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes are lost (alopecia), and the scalp hair may be replaced by small, downy, white or blond hairs. Additional characteristic features include generalized atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke, hip dislocations, unusually prominent veins of the scalp, loss of the layer of fat beneath the skin (subcutaneous adipose tissue), defects of the nails, joint stiffness, skeletal defects, and/or other abnormalities. According to reports in the medical literature, individuals with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome develop premature, widespread thickening and loss of elasticity of artery walls (arteriosclerosis), which result in life-threatening complications during childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood. Children with progeria die of heart disease (atherosclerosis) at an average age of 13 years, with a range of about eight to 21 years.

Progeria is caused by a mutation of the gene LMNA, or lamin A. The lamin A protein is the scaffolding that holds the nucleus of a cell together. Researchers now believe that the defective lamin A protein makes the nucleus unstable. That cellular instability appears to lead to the process of premature aging in progeria. Because neither parent carries or expresses the mutation, each case is believed to represent a sporadic, new mutation that happens most notably in a single sperm or egg immediately prior to conception.

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  • Brown TW. Progeria. In: Kliegman RM, et al. Kliegman: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Saunders Elsevier; 2007. http://www.mdconsult.com/book/player/book.do?method=display&type=bookPage&decorator=header&eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4160-2450-7..50092-X&uniq=124224571&isbn=978-1-4160-2450-7&sid=812951456. Accessed March 5, 2009.
  • Brown TW. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. National Institutes of Health: Gene Reviews. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=gene&part=hgps. Accessed March 5, 2009.
  • Hutchison-Gilford progeria syndrome. Genetics Home Reference. http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=hutchinsongilfordprogeriasyndrome. Accessed March 5, 2009.
  • Anti-cancer drug prevents, reverses cardiovascular damage in mouse model of premature aging disorder. National Institutes of Health. http://www.nih.gov/news/health/oct2008/nhgri-06.htm. Accessed March 5, 2009.
  • Martini R. Helping children cope with chronic illness. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Accessed March 5, 2009.
  • Paterson, D. : Case of progeria. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 16: 42 only, 1922.
  • Brown, W. T. : Personal Communication. Staten Island, N.Y., 1/12/2004.

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Holt Oram Syndrome: A rare Genetic Disease

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Respiratory System Disorders

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Sleep Disorders – Something You Always Want Know About

Definition
A Sleep Disorder (somnipathy) is a Medical Disorder of the sleep patterns. It’s important to understand why Sleep Disorder can deteriorate your health and interfere with normal physical, mental and emotional functioning as it effects your nervous system in the production of the natural hormone melatonin which is necessary for sleep and wakefulness. Polysomnography testing can help to evaluate and detect the patterns of sleep disorder.

The basic of sleep
Why sleep is so important, you might already know that a normal night of sleep is about eight hours as recommended by most doctors. Why it is important, because during sleep our bodies repair the wear ant tear of muscle tissue, consolidate memories, and release hormones to regulate our growth and appetites and enhance the immune system, etc. The effect of disorder sleep can reduce the functions of the immune system in fighting against disease and sickness.

Most Common sleep disorders – The symptoms
1. Primary insomnia
Most of us might find hard to sleep and maintaining sleep sometime during our life time because of what ever reasons, but prolonged period of difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or both without primary reason is considered the medical issue as chronic insomnia. It effects about 10% of general population.

2. Bruxism
Bruxism is a condition in which you grind, gnash or clench your teeth while sleeping, involuntarily.

3. Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS)
Delayed sleep phase syndrome affects about 10% of all chronic insomnia cases. It is defined as a sleep disorder of people who have a natural inclination to go to bed later other than normal sleep routine and difficult to wake up at the desired time as it also interferes with daily activities, such as school or work, that requires to wake up earlier than would otherwise be natural, leading to sleep deprivation and other issues.

4. Hypopnea syndrome
Hypopnea Syndrome is a condition in which an individual experiences overly shallow breathing or a abnormally slow rate of airflow during sleep, leading to disruption in breathing causes lower oxygen absorption that affect the blood oxygen level that disrupts the stages of sleep. Individual with hyponea syndrome even though get full night sleep but still feels tiredness at daytime.

5. Narcolepsy
Narcolepsy is a chronic Neurological Disorder caused by the brain’s inability to regulate sleep-wake cycles normally, causing overwhelming daytime drowsiness, leading to extreme fatigue and possibly falls asleep at inappropriate times that interferes with daily routine activities. People with narcolepsy often find it hard to stay awake for long periods of time.

6. Night terror
Night terror is defined as a health condition with characteristic of fear, flailing and screaming while asleep. It is most happened to children with age two to six and affects about fifteen percent of all children. Night terror often is paired with sleepwalking.
7. Parasomnias:
Parasomnias are sleep Disorders characterized by abnormal and unnatural movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, etc. including bedwetting, sleepwalking, nightmares.

8. Periodic limb Movement Disorder (PLMD)
Periodic limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) is a condition in which a person crampsor jerks the legs repetitively and uncontrollably during asleep causing excessive daytime sleepiness and falling to sleep during the day. PLMD can occur at any age but happens most common in middle-aged and older people.

9. Rapid eye movement Behavior Disorder
Rapid eye movement Behavior Disorder is a sleep disorder characterized by abnormal behavior while sleeping with rapid eye movement. It is mostly associated with the elderly with Neurodegenerative Disorders.

10. Restless legs syndrome (RLS):
RLS is a Neurological Disorder characterized by an irresistible to move your legs while you’re sitting or lying down due to comforting if stop.

11. Situational circadian rhythm Sleep Disorders
Circadian rhythm Sleep Disorders is characterized as health condition of disruptions in a person’s circadian rhythm, leading to excessive sleepiness and a lack of daytime alertness that interferes with normal work, school, and social needs.

13. Sleep Apnea
Sleep Apnea is a common disorder in which you have one or more abnormal pauses in breathing or shallow breaths during sleep. Each pause in breathing called an apnea can last for a few seconds but sometime minutes. This types of abnormal breathing can occur 30 times or more in an hour.

14. Sleep paralysis
Sleep paralysis consists of a period of inability to perform voluntary movements either at sleep onset (called hypnogogic or predormital form) or upon awakening (called hypnopompic or postdormtal form). It can occur in healthy persons or may be associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, a sudden loss of muscle tone, etc.

15. Sleepwalking
Sleep walking or somnambulism is defined as an disorder of is a disorder of walking or doing any activity when sleeping.These activities can be as benign or extremely hazardous.

16. Nocturia
Nocturia or nycturiais a condition in which you need to get up during the night to go to washroom to urinate.

17. Somniphobia
Somniphobia or hypnophobia is an abnormal fear of sleep. It may result from a feeling of control loss, Anxiety around bedtime, Panic Attacks, repeating nightmares, etc.

18. Etc.

Causes and Risk Factors
1. Genetics
Narcolepsy is a type of neurological sleep disorder caused by a number of genetic abnormalities such as Chromosome 6 also known as the human leukocyte antigen system, inherited from parents affecting certain biologic functions in the brain, together with other environmental factors during the child early brain’s development.

2. Working the night shift
Working night shift may interfere with the brain natural production of the sleep hormone Serotonin and normal functions of the inner biological clocks, leading to drowsiness. If this type of problem happened in a prolonged period of time may cause sleep disorder.

3. Medications
Certain types of medicines such as medication for high blood pressure, oral contraceptives, diet pills, anti Depression, etc. and medication with with caffeine can increase the risk of sleep disorder.

4. Aging
The risk of sleep disorder increases with age as over half of adults over the age of 65 have some sort of sleep disorder.

5. Smoking
Cigarette contains high amount of nicotine, a stimulant which can cause sleep disorder as researchers found that smokers enhances daytime sleepiness more than do nonsmokers, especially in younger age groups.

6. Illegal drugs
Illegal drugs interfere natural brain normal functions in productions of certain hormones and blocks certain chemicals’ function in transporting important neural signals, leading to sleep disorder.

7. Alcohol
Although it is considered as a sedative or calming drug, but it increases the number of times a person awakens in the later half of the night, leading to lead daytime fatigue and sleepiness causing alcohol-related sleep disorders.

8. Etc.

Improve your diet
1. Tryptophan rich foods
Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, the precursor to Serotonin, in turn, converted to melatonin, via N-acetyltransferase and 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activities which are necessary neurotransmitter responsible for transmitting nerve impulses in the brain and induce relaxation and natural sleep, but high levels of tryptophan can increase the risk of drowsiness and cause harmful harmful effects of the age-related increase in brain serotonin. Intake food rich of tryptophan from the food below.
a. Chicken breast and Turkey
b. Tuna
c. Soybean
d. Beef
e. Lamb
f. Halibut
g. Shrimp
h. Salmon
i. Etc.

2. Carbohydrate
Eating foods with
high in carbohydrate stimulates the pancreas in production and releasing insulin in the blood stream as it also reduce others amino acids which would otherwise complete with trytophan, leading to the production of serotonin, which in return enhances the production melatonin, the natural sleep induced hormone.
a. Bread and pasta
b. Whole gain cereal
c. Potatoes
d. Apple pie and
e. Ice cream
f. Oatmeal and raisin cookies
g. Etc.
High amount of simple carbohydrate over prolonged period of time can increase the risk of type II diabetes due to over work that diminishes the function of pancreas in production of insulin. It If you are any symptom of sleep disorder, eating turkey combined with complex carbohydrate rich foods would be a better choice for meat and glucose. What is your choice?

3. Chlorophyll
All green plants including algae contain at least one type of chlorophyll, the green pigment of plants which allows plants to absorb sun light and convert them into usable energy. Beside it is best known as oxygen uptaker to the blood, it is also important to calm the nervous system, to induce sleep due to rich amount of magnesium.
a. All dark green plants( Roman lettuce is the best choice)
b. Algae (Fresh water organic growth is the best choice)
c. Etc.

4. Magnesium
Magnesium is a natural sedative and stabilization of abnormal nerve excitation as it is used in conjunction with other medication to treat depressed elderly type 2 diabetics.. The mineral is important in manipulating of ATP, DNA, and RNA and many enzymes.
a. Leaf green vegetables (due to high amount of Chlorophyll)
b. Almonds
c. Sesame seed
d. Blackstrap molasses
e. Brewer’s yeast
f. Whole grains
g. Etc.

Improve your Lifestyle
1. Cut down intake of alcohol, cigarettes and caffeine
Alcohol, cigarettes and caffeine are stimulant, some may have health benefits for the short time, but prolonged of period of using them can cause tension of nervous system, affecting the brain in transmitting information between nerve cells and cells in other parts of the body, causing many kinds of disorder, including sleep disorder.

2. Artificial ingredients
Artificial ingredients are man made chemical compounds which have been proven to be harmful to our health and sleep, if eating in measure amounts. Drinking water will keep the body hydrated, dilute toxins concentration and eliminate toxins. Always wash your fruit and vegetables in cold water before eating to prevent pesticides.

3. Toxins induced sleep disorder
Heavy metals and toxic chemicals in the blood can cause sleep disorder. Exposure to heavy metals and toxic chemicals over a prolonged periods of time also interrupt the normal function of brain in production of hormones and damage to the body organs, leading to diseases, including hormone imbalance and sleep disorder.

4. Improve sleep
There are some steps which you can do to improve healthy sleep and prevent to become a victim of sleep disorder. Researcher found that a good night’s sleep not only boosts the immune system in fighting against foreign invasion but also repairs all tear and wear of the body after daily activity in previous day and restore energy and keep you functioning during times when sleep is limited.

5. Eating healthy foods
Eating some kinds of healthy food above enhances the production of serotonin which induces sleep and protects us against the accumulation of toxins by promoting the immune system to cope with today out of our controllable environment hazard.

6. Exercise
Exercise not only improves blood circulation and enhance body movement but also help to cleanse our body organs by eliminating toxins from the blood and lymph system.

7. Weight loss
Weight loss for overweight or obesity person may reduce the symptoms of disorder or cure your sleep disorder entirely. Researcher found that overweight and obese individuals slept less than those of normal weight and sleeping less than 8 hours a day, time of sleeplessness increases proportionally with weight gain of BMI index.

8. Etc.

Detoxification
1. With nutritional supplements
There is no quick way in detoxification, fasting too fast may even harmful to your health. Nutritional supplements not only help to improve our health, restore our energy but also revitalize our metabolism, the chemical processes in our body by restoring and balancing the existing deficiencies of nutrition required by our organs to detox. Types of nutritional supplements used to detox include
a. Beta Carotene
b. Vitamin A
c. Vitamin C
d. Vitamin E
e. Calcium
f. Folate acid
g. Vitamin B Complexes
h. Selenium
i. Zinc
g. Lycopene
k. Etc.

2. With diet
Detox diet is a short-term diet, focused on cleansing environmental and dietary toxins accumulated in our body system, often focused on removing toxins from the body by increasing the frequency of bowel movements and urination, as it provides an optimal conditions for our bodies to focus on self-healing, retore and raise energy levels, enhance organs and system functions, stimulate optimal health, prevent premature aging, disease, etc. by minimizing intake of the amount of toxic chemicals, eating foods with high amount of vitamins, nutrients, antioxidants, high fiber and water.

3. Juice fasting
Juice fasting is a type of fasting and detox diet in which a person consumes only fruit and vegetable juices. Since juice contains little to no fiber, it is often used to cleanse your body toxins by expelling waste from the intestines and colon.The below are used generally in juice fasting
a. Vegetables
Celery, cucumber, bell pepper, etc.
b. Leaf Greens
Parsley, kale, beet greens, chard, spinach, etc.
c. Cruciferous vegetables
Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, etc.
d. Root vegetables
Carrots, beets, sweet potatoes, etc.
e. Fruits
Dark grapes, apples, lemon, etc.
f. Wheat grass
g. Etc.

For details of foods of above visit 100+ Healthy Foods Classification or
Super Food Health Effects

4. Organs detoxification
4.1. Liver detoxification
Liver is the first line of defense. It helps to regulate the level of cholesterol in the circulatory system by producing bile to the digestive system. It also help to balance our body hormones such as estrogen level in women as well as protecting our body from inflammation. Weakened liver will cause many types of diseases, such as cholesterol and triglyceride building up in our blood, inflammation, hormonal imbalance, etc. The natural remedies used for liver cleansing include
a. Milk thistle
Milk thistle, a flower plant of the daisy family have been traditionally claimed in treating chronic liver disease. It contains silymarin that helps to protect liver function and the liver in expelling toxins.

b. St. John wort
St. John wort is also known as tipton weed or klamath weed. It has been used traditionally in Treating Depression. It contains different flavonoids and 3-O-coumaroylquinic acid that has anti-inflammation and antioxidant effects by stimulating the immune system in fighting allergies and liver protection from toxins.

c. Fennel
Fennel contains anethole, polymers and essential oil that helps the liver and pancreas in the metabolism of fats and sugars. It also helps to dissolve fat deposits of the body and restore damaged liver cells that cause jaundice, hepatitis and other Liver Disorders.

d. Etc.

4.2. Lung detoxification
The best lung cleansing method is exercise. Moderate exercise such as walking, Tai chi only helps to improve the respiratory muscle functions, but also helps our lung to expel toxins accumulated through the air. Natural remedies used for lung detoxification include
a. Wild Cherry Bark
Wild cherry bark traditionally has been used to treat irritable and persistent, cough of bronchitis, and pertussis due to increased irritability of respiratory mucosa. Since it has antispasmodic qualities, it has been used with other herbs to treat asthma and enhance relaxation as well as removing toxins from the lung.

b. Platycodon
Root Platycodon has been used in Chinese medicine for over a century in treating abscesses, Respiratory Disorders, and Intestinal Disorders. Study shows that platycodon roots not only help to treat coughs due to purulent sputum and inflammation in the chest area but also removes toxins in the lung.

c. Mullein Mullein contains coumarin and rotenone. It has a long history of being used as a medicine and is an effective treatment for asthma and Respiratory Disorders. Mullein also helps in soothing the mucous membranes, reducing inflammation and encouraging healthy fluid production in the lungs.

d. Etc.

4.3. Bowl detoxification
Bowel detoxification is particularly helpful for improving body conditions and controlling weight loss. It brushes the intestine clean and helps the liver to cleanse toxins rapidly, so you can get rid of all parasites and plaques in your stomach, intestines and colon. The choice of bowl cleansing include
a. Flax seed
Flax seed contains high amounts of omega 3 fatty acid, fiber and lignan that not only helps in controlling cholesterol in the blood stream and provides essential nutrition to our body, its fiber also helps to soften the stool and promote bowel movements for relief of constipation by removing all toxins accumulated in the colon.

b. Psyllium
Psyllium contains about 70% soluble fiber and 30% insoluble fiber. Besides having proven record in Chinese medicine in treating high levels of cholesterol, its fiber portion has been used to treat constipation by softening stools and easing bowel movements.

c. Bentonite
Bentonite is a natural clay that comes from volcanic ash. Taken internally, the adsorbent action of bentonite helps to eliminate and remove toxic material from the intestine.

d. Liquid clay Liquid clay moves through our body and attaches to any bacteria, virus as well as toxins in our intestine and removes them out of our body as wastes resulting in improved intestinal regularity, easing chronic constipation and easing indigestion.

e. Etc.

4.4. Circulatory detoxification
Chelation therapy is the first choice of treatment, with the IV above your head, the substances in the IV help to cleanse the toxic chemicals such as lead, mercury, calcium, etc in your arteries and brain. It is usually applied to people with pre existing heart conditions and between ages of 35-45. Natural remedies include
a. Raw sauerkraut
Sauerkraut is finely shredded cabbage and has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria with distinct sour flavor. It contains high amounts of vitamin C, lactobacilli and other nutrients that helps to improve blood circulation and increase level of oxygen in the blood stream. It also is said to have done a super job in purifying your blood as well as anti aging effects.

b. Garlic Garlic is nature’s super food. Besides having been used in strengthening the immune system, fighting inflammation and infection caused by bacteria, virus, and chronic illness. It also is a blood thinner, blood purifier as well as increasing the level of oxygen in the blood and improving blood circulation.

c. Dang Qui
Dang qui has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousand of years in improving blood quality and purity, and help strengthen the immune system as it supports the body’s removal of toxins in the blood.

d. Etc.

4.5. Skin detoxification
Skin is our body third line of defense. If the weaken liver and kidney can not completely eliminate all the toxins in our body, our body will try to eliminate them through the skin causing certain types of skin diseases such as free radicals.
a. Chromium
Chromium is very important in rejuvenating the skin condition. It helps to balance the blood sugar, and lower Stress And Depression. Both are main factors that impact skin problems. It also helps to get rid of skin toxins caused by bacteria and virus infection.

b. Zinc
Deficiency of zinc causes the thickening of skin. It is also a powerful antibiotic in treating acne and other forms of skin diseases caused by skin inflammation and toxins accumulation as a resulting of stimulating the release of vitamin A from the skin.

c. Lecithin
Lecithin is a fat-like substance, or phospholipid, produced by every healthy liver that is needed for a healthy skin. Lecithin helps the body in utilizing vitamins A, D, E in fighting against the bacteria and virus that causes skin problems. It also helps to eliminate the toxins on the skin or around the eyes caused by fatty deposits.

d. Strawberry leaf
Strawberries come in endless varieties but all leaves of all strawberries contain healing tannins. It has also been used to aid in the treatment of anemia, eczema, jaundice and other skin problems caused by weakening of the liver.

e. Etc.

4.6. Kidney detoxification
Our kidneys process a special function to eliminate waste products and extra fluids from our blood. The waste and extra fluids flow through ureters as you urinate. If your kidneys are damaged or weakened, the wastes would build up in the blood causing blood poison and damaging other organs. Natural remedies used to cleanse kidney include

a. Dandelion leaf
Dandelion is a rich source of vitamins A, B complex, C, and D, as well as minerals such as iron, potassium, and zinc. Dandelion root has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine in treating liver disease by stimulating the removal of liver toxins. Dandelion leaf on the other hand are used as a diuretic to stimulate the excretion of urine in removing the toxin accumulated in the kidney.

b. Echinacea
Commonly called purple coneflower. It contains a wide variety of chemicals that not only helps to strengthen the immune system but also stimulates the removal of toxins that causes kidney inflammation and infection.

c. Corn silk
Corn silks are the silky fibers that are found under the leaves and on top of an ear of corn. It contains flavonoids, essential oil and minerals that helps effectively in treating acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system caused by toxins accumulated in the kidney.

d. Etc.

4.7. How to sharpen your brain
The best method to cleanse your brain is oxygen therapy. By providing the oxygen necessary for brain cells needs, it helps to rejuvenate and sharpen the brain cells. Study shows that oxygen therapy helps to restore some cells in patient with Alzheimer diseases. Natural remedies used to sharpen brain functions include
a. Gingko
Ginkgo is perhaps the most widely currently used herbal treatment in memory enhancing. Extracts of Ginkgo leaves contain active and potent form of terpenoids such as bilobalides and ginkgolides that help to enhance the central nervous system functions. Ginkgo should only be taken under the guidance of a knowledgeable medical professional because of risk of bleeding .

b. Rosmary
Rosemary is a hardy bushy perennial shrub with aromatic, evergreen leaves and pale-blue flowers around the stem. It contains phenolic acids , bitter diterpenes, triterpenes, and flavonoids. it is used for headaches, Nervous System Disorder as well as preventing forming of free radical with its amazing antioxidant properties.

c. Etc.

5. With Melatonin
Beside it is used as a supplement in promoting immune system and anti-aging, melatonin supplement also benefits for varies sleep-wake rhythm. Melatonin pills work quickly, usually people taking the pill fall into sleep in less than an hour. Unfortunately, prolonged period of using the supplement may reduce the functions of endocrine system in production its own melatonin in regulating the sleep cycle if you constantly supply the body with external sources.
Synthetic melatonin is different than natural one, it can cause some unknown long term effects.
Also researcher have not found out the optimal dose to make the supplement working in perfect objective, it is up to individual to experiment with different dose before finding the right dose for their needs.

Treatments
Treatments for sleep disorders generally can be grouped into four categories:
1. Psychotherapeutic treatments
a. Behavior therapy
Behavior therapy is a Psychotherapy pproach based on learning theory with purpose to treat sleep disorder by reinforceing desirable habits and eliminating undesired behaviors by replcaing them with more satisfying behavior.

b. Congnitive behavior therapy
Cognitive behavior therapy is another Psychotherapy approach and Mental Health Counseling with a purpose to solve problems concerning dysfunctional emotions, behaviors that affect the the sleep patterns by teaching people specific cognitive and behavioral skills to help them control and preventing dysfunctional emotions, behaviors and cognition through a systematic method.

c. Interpersonal therapy
Interpersonal therapy is another form of psychotherapy approach has been used successfully with depressed patients causes of sleep disorder by improving the quality of patient’s interpersonal world, relationships, etc.

d. Gestalt therapy
Gestalt therapy is a psychotherapy approach based on the philosophy of existentialism and phenomenology by emphasizing personal responsibility, focussing upon the individual’s experience in the present and working together (The therapist and patient) work together to help the patient understand the environmental and social contexts of a person’s life. The theory was developed by Fritz Perls, Laura Perls and Paul Goodman in the 1940s and 1950s.

e. Etc.

2. Rehabilitation
Polysomnography is one most common used sleep machine to record patients sleep behavior usually performed at night by monitoring the body functions including brain (EEG), eye movements (EOG), muscle activity or skeletal muscle activation (EMG) and heart rhythm (ECG) during sleep, etc. Once the symptoms of sleep disorder is identified, the specific rehabitation program is desired for the patient to obtain an optimal result.

3. Medications
Medication used depending to particular sleep problems of each individual
a. Anti-Parkinsonian drugs (dopamine agonists)
Used to treat restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder

b. Benzodiazepines, including in a class of drugs called hypnotics.
Used to treat parasomnias, bruxism (teeth grinding) and short-term insomnia.

c. Non-benzodiazepine hypnotics
Used to treat short-term insomnia.

d. Antinarcoleptics
Mainly used to reduce daytime drowsiness for shift workers or suffered from narcolepsy or sleep apnea.

e. Anticonvulsants
Used to treat nocturnal eating syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, and insomnia related to Bipolar Disorder.

f. Etc.

4. Other somatic treatments
a. Surgical treatments
Surgical treatment may sometime is necessary to treat breathing-related sleep disorders in some patients, such as obstruction or airway abnormality.

b. Phototherapy or light therapy
Phototherapy uses bright, specific wavelengths of light in a prescribed amount of time to change the timing of sleep and wakefulness. It is worked specially well for patient with Circadian rhythm sleep disorders such as chronic CRSD, and situational CRSD.

c. etc.

5. Etc.

We will come back with the same subject viewed under the microscope of Traditional Chinese Medicine. At the mean time, enjoy reading.

Visit my home page at
http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com
For more health articles for better living

About the Author

Health Researcher and Article Writer. Master in Mathematics and BA in World Literature and Literary criticism.

Respiratory, Nervous System, Liver, Kidney and Blood Disorders

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