Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Archive for the ‘trauma’ tag

Ptsd Therapy

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ptsd therapy
In therapy 10+ yrs. BorderlinPD, Ptsd and Major Depressive Disorder. Dr’s say I can live a better life? T/F?

Is there anyone out there who been in therapy and on meds this long that believes there is still hope. I don’t believe any of this is worth it, I don’t have the will, want or motivation to keep working especially towards nothing!

I suffer from similar conditions to you and have been in therapy for an extensive amount of time.

I won’t promise you that it will get better. Mostly through my own experiences, my life changes like the seasons. I will have periods where I’m okay – just okay. Then I will have bad moments but fundamentally I have learned that I tend to live through the bad moments. I don’t live well – I quit jobs, change my name and move states.. but here I am, still living, breathing and able to post a response to your question.

Recently I have become accustomed to the idea that I will most likely be in therapy for the majority of my life and due to this realisation, I have terminated my study in a Psyc degree because of it. I am having a lot of trouble with Depression in the wake of my decision. But I know that my life will go on, I’ll move onto something different and really, who knows what the future will bring?

All I can tell you is to stick it out. Change therapists if you would like – maybe you need a different approach, I’ve been to at least five different therapists before I settled on my current one. Be open to trying new things, I participated in group therapy a while back and quit it because it wasn’t working. Now in my everyday life I use things that I learned in group to cope with different situations and really I think it has been quite helpful. Be open to change and let change happen.

I don’t expect this answer to help you that much. You’ve probably been told this time and time again. I know I am saying it because it’s what I’ve been told. I really have no other advice… hold on and good luck xoxo

Ptsd Treatment Works

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September 10th, 2011 at 8:06 am

Ptsd Recovery

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ptsd recovery
After a long Traumatic brain injury recovery with social isolation how can I get back into a social life?

My head injury (basal skull fracture) was 3 1/2 years ago and after a whole lot of recovery time I have finally started to feel like the old me again (the TBI caused psychological problems more than physical problems). After the accident I battled Severe Depression, Anxiety, signs of Ptsd, agoraphobia, and self destructive behavior. After a few years of therapy, counseling, and medication I have either overcome or managed those problems. Now I want my life back which is very hard to do because i have isolated myself from all my friends or have scared them away with the very different personality I had for a while. what should I do, should i try to reconnect with some of my friends or should i just try to meat new people, if so where and how (by the way I am 23 years old). Any suggestions would be appreciated.

Hello .I know what u mean and have been through somewhat similar situation. I would suggest that you join something- like some hobby classes or resume your studies or join a job. Something that would put you in touch with a group of people who would have something common with you in life .That would very naturally put you back on the social track in no time. As for ur old friends ;let it take its own time and after you are somewhat back to ur previous normal self-you can get in touch with them again. But since old friends revive old memories and also since you havent had much in common with them lately ,it would be a better idea and more natural and easier for you to begin your life afresh-amidst new people, places and situations and then later move on towards the older ones too.It would also help you to open towards new aspects of your own personality and changes in your interests ,life style tendencies etc which are natural occurings when people rehabilitate.You might also discover that there are parts of your mind and personality that u have left behind.Personally I was surprised to find out that everything was was so easy .

congratualtions and al the best for new beginnings

REM Sleep and Ptsd Recovery – Part I – Barry Krakow, MD

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Written by Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

September 8th, 2011 at 6:16 am

National Center For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

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national center for post traumatic stress disorder

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Media Personnel

The terrorist activities allover the world has increased in frequency and intensity. Like other events these activities now play an important role in changing  the attitude and behavior of the people.

Thepsychological effects of terrorism has started attracting the attention of various fields for diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. The rates of posttraumaticstress disorder (Ptsd) symptoms have been found to be increasing in the people who face the aftermath of these activities. (Arieh.Y. et. al, 2005).

Fear and Anxiety is bound to develop in everybody who faces the situation whether directly or indirectly. In most of the instances the  distress developed out of these experiences fades with time, but may be extended to Ptsd if does not disappear.

When considering the studies it is important to bear in mindthat Stress Symptoms measured in the immediate aftermath ofan attack are not necessarily ‘post-Traumatic‘.PTSD involves extreme threat, thatendures, despite the danger having passed (Vázquez et. al, 2006).

Transientsymptoms should in most cases therefore be regarded as a generaland not necessarily inappropriate stress response, partly reflectinginvolvement and concern with one’s own safety as wellas with the safety of the community, family and friends.

Symptomreporting will also be associated with actual losses of people,possessions and employment (Galea et al, 2002; De Lisi et al, 2003). The individuals will have experienced intense fear, helplessness of horror – an aspect of trauma which is now known to have significant implications for how that experience is stored in the

body’s and brain’s memory.

Media persons too, as common man will be affected by trauma work they get involved in. As with firefighters, soldiers or rescue workers, it is the media profession to witness and experience traumatic suffering and profound human distress.

Media persons have assumed macho culture, with some of the assumptions that they are not the story – so are not affected, are trained to keep a distance and only to report the facts, so are not touched. They might believe that it’s weak/ selfish/ inappropriate to feel emotions when the people they’re reporting have suffered such pain and anguish and they will risk careers if they acknowledge any kind of weakness. Media persons may want to believe they’re superhuman and unaffected by trauma. However, current research shows , not surprisingly,  they are not (Bleich, A., 2003).

Failure of self-care might be present which is dangerous. This evidence now permitssome estimate to be made of the mental health consequencesof terrorism and of the challenge for psychiatric services for media men.

The risk factors present for the sample are as-

  1. Exposure to war (Feinstein et al., 2005; Simpson & Boggs, 1999).
  2. Exposure to a greater number of traumatic assignments (Newman et al., 2003; Pyevich et al., 2003, McMahon, 2001).
  3. Exposure to higher intensity assignments (Smith, R., 2008).
  4. Time spent in the field
  • Younger journalists with less experience (Teegen & Wrotwinkel, 2001).
  • Veteran journalists with more exposure (Simpson & Boggs, 1999).
  1. Exposure to traumatic events in one’s personal life (Newman et al., 2003; Pyevich et al., 2003; Teegen & Wrotwinkel, 2001).
  2. Low perceived social support (Newman et al., 2003).
  3. Negative beliefs about self, others, & the world following trauma (Pyevich et al., 2003).
  4. Negative emotionality (e.g., anger, hostility) (Marais & Stuart, 2005).
  5. Difficulty with emotional [removed]Teegen & Grotwinkel, 2001).
  6. High perceived organizational stress (Smith, R., 2008).
  7. Avoidant styles of coping (Smith, R., 2008).
  8. Low perceived social acknowledgment by supervisors and colleagues (Weidmann et al., 2008).

The present study evaluates the incidence of PTSD in the media personnel after the terrorist attacks in Jaipur City.


To find out the prevalence of PTSD in media personnel who have faced the aftermath of city bombing in 2008.


1. There is no significant difference between the PTSD scores of the first and the

second reading.

2. There is no significant difference between the PTSD scores of the second and

the third reading.

Collection of Data

The data for this study was collected after the traumaticevent of bombing in Jaipur city in Rajasthan. The study group had a similar gender (male). Some of the sample were busy capturing news, corresponding tothe people in hospital emergency room and all were were the witness of event directly and indirectly.


The Clinician-Administered Ptsd Checklist (Specific) by National Center For Ptsd, USA was utilized, toconfer a diagnosis of PTSD at 1 month, 8 months and after passage of 2 years. This 17-item self-report scale for PTSD is based on DSM-IV criteria and takes 5-7 minutes to complete. These items tap into the Dsm Iv PTSD B (re experiencing), C (hyper arousal) and D ( avoidance).

Statistical Analysis

Data was tabulated through Mean, SD and unpaired t-test.


The results show that the mean PTSD score of the media personnel busy in capturing, recording and writing of the event, exposed to auditory and visual images, present at the sight of city bombing was 45.2 within the month after the attack showing prevalence of PTSD in the sample. The score limit 44 and above indicates higher level of PTSD. The mean scores were found to be 19 within the year and 22 after the passage of two years just before the recent fear of communal riots in the year 2010 indicating absence of PTSD..

Hence, results confirming that the exposure to terrorist attacks is followed by a higher incidenceof PTSD and higher levels of Ptsd Symptoms in media personnel.Also conforming that with the passage of time and comparative declined terrorist activities the Ptsd Symptoms decline  and may aggravate with the opportunity as seen in the B, C, and D criterion .

Wounds whether physical or psychological take time to heal. Media persons are no different from other people. They too need to express that they are hurt, to seek and accept help and to allow time and space for healing.  The research also suggests that PTSD-like symptoms can take hold after an auditory and visual exposure to trauma, whether physical or emotional and may reappear.

Most people recover reasonably well from traumatic experience. But it is important  for journalists and other media personnel to recognise that Traumatic Stress can accumulate over time and can reappear with the opportunity and its impact on an individual can be compounded. Major news organizations should therefore immediately respond to the importance of providing support and training for journalists and other media personnel who may be exposed to trauma and traumatic stress in the course of their work. There should be preventive and intervention programs for this problem conducted for media personnel immediately after the traumatic events.


Arieh, Y.,  Shalev  and Sara Freedman (2005). PTSD Following Terrorist Attacks: A Prospective Evaluation. Am. J. Psychiatry, 162:1188-1191.

Bleich, A., Gelkopf, M., Solomon, Z. (2003).  Exposure to terrorism, stress-related Mental Health Symptoms, and coping behaviors among a nationally representative sample in Israel. JAMA, 290:612–620.

Feinstein,  A.  & Nicholson, D.  (2005).  Embedded journalists in the Iraq war: Are they at greater psychological risk? Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(2) 129-132.

Galea, S., Ahern, J., Resnick, H., et al (2002). Psychological sequelae of the September 11 terrorist attacks in the New York city. New  England Journal of Medicine, 346, 982 –987.

Vázquez, C., Pérez-Sales, P. & Matt, G. (2006). Posttraumatic Stress reactions following the March 11, 2004 terrorist attacks in a Madrid community sample: a cautionary note about the measurement of psychological trauma. Spanish  Journal of Psychology, 9, 61 –74.

Marais, A.  & Stuart,  A.  (2005). The role of temperament in the development of post- Traumatic Stress Disorder  amongst journalists. South African Journal of Psychology, 35, 89-105.

Newman, E., Simpson, R. & Handschuh, D. (2003). Trauma exposure and post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Photojournalists. Visual CommunicationQuarterly.10, 4-13.

Pyevich, C., Newman, E., & Daleiden, E. (2003). The relationship among cognitive schemas, job-related traumatic exposure, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in journalists. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16, 325-328.

Simpson, R. & Boggs, J. (1999). An exploratory study of traumatic stress among newspaper     journalists. Journalism and Communication Monographs, Spring, 1-24.

Smith, R. (2008). Trauma and journalism: Exploring a model of risk and resilience. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Teegen, F. & Grotwinkel, M. (2001). Traumatic exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder of journalists. An internet-based study. Psychotherapeut, 46, 169-175.

Weathers, F.W., Huska, J.A., Keane, T.M.(1991). PCL-S for DSM-IV. Boston: National Center For Ptsd – Behavioral Science Division.

Weidmann, A., Fehm, L., & Fydrich, T. (2008). Covering the tsunami disaster: Subsuquent post-traumatic and depressive symptoms and associated social factors. Stress and Health, 24, 129-135.



About the Author

Assistant Professor, Human Development, ICG, The IIS University Jaipur.

Hazelden – A Guide for Living With Ptsd: Perspectives for Professionals and Their Clients

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Written by Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

September 1st, 2011 at 9:38 am

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